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British Raj in Bengal How was Bengal before the British Raj

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British Raj in Bengal- We know that the bad condition of Bengal today was not there earlier. Bengal where many great men have been brought up. This is where numerous great men like Ram-Krishna Paramhansa, Sri Aurobindo, Swami Vivekananda, Ravindra Nath Thakur, Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, Netaji Subhash Babu, Khudiram Bose, etc. took birth on the land of Bengal and served Bharat Mata.

Apart from this, Bengal was known for its silk, saltpeter, and famous cloth, which had economic importance in India. Bengal was the most fertile and richest province of India. It included present-day Bangladesh and the states of Bihar, West Bengal, Jharkhand, and Odisha

Let us know how Bengal was then when India was coming under British rule after the slavery of the Mughals. and British Raj in Bengal: Questions and Answers.

Table of Contents

How was Bengal before the conquest of Bengal by the British?

At the beginning of the 18th century, 60 percent of Britain’s imports from Asia used to go through Bengal. The interest of the British started increasing in Bengal only because of the trading capabilities of Bengal.

In the year 1700 AD, Murshid Quli Khan was appointed as the Diwan of Bengal and till his death (till 1727 AD) he continued to hold the reins of Bengal. After this, his son-in-law Shuja ruled Bengal for fourteen years. After this, for a brief period of one year, the administration passed into the hands of Murshid Quli Khan’s incompetent son, but Alivardi Khan soon overthrew him and ruled Bengal till 1756.

All these three rulers were very capable and strong. Bengal became extremely prosperous during his reign. There were many other reasons for this prosperity in Bengal.

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For example, where the rest of India suffered from frontier wars, Maratha invasions, and Jat rebellions, and northern India was devastated by the invasions of Nadir Shah and Ahmad Shah Abdali.

The formal allegiance between the Mughal rule, the Sultanate of Delhi, and the rule of the Nawabs in Bengal was good. Murshid Quli Khan became the governor of Bengal in 1717 under Mughal patronage but his contact with Delhi was limited to sending presents. Shuja-ud-din became the Nawab in 1727 and remained the Nawab of Bengal till Alivardi Khan became the Nawab in 1739.

On the other hand, overall peace remained in Bengal. During this period, there was also significant progress in foreign trade in Bengal. In the first half of the 18th century, from 1706 AD to 1756 AD, Bengal earned silver worth about 6.5 crore rupees through its exports and traded about 2.3 crore rupees.

The rulers of Bengal did not discriminate on religious grounds in public appointments and Hindus held high positions in the civil services and obtained lucrative zamindari.

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Calcutta in Bengal had a population of 15,000 in 1706, which increased to one lakh in 1750, and Dacca and Moradabad became densely populated cities. But the condition behind this glitter of prosperity was so hopeless and fragile that it seemed that this prosperity was like a wall of unbaked bricks, which would dissolve in the ocean with a small blow of a storm.

However, due to Nawab’s underestimation of the threat posed by his weak and meager army and the threat posed by the Company, Bengal suffered a defeat at the hands of the British Company. And in 1757 the British Company won the Battle of Plassey.

British Raj in Bengal: Questions and Answers

How was Bengal during the Mughal period?

Bengal was the most fertile and richest province of the Mughal period, most of India’s trade was done from Bengal only.

Who had the official powers of Bengal?

The official powers of Bengal were with the Nawab here.

Which state of India became the first slave of the British?

Bengal.

British Raj in Bengal
James Lancaster commanded the first East India Company voyage in 1601. Photo Credit Wikipedia

How important was Bengal for the British?

Bengal was very important for the British. The British benefited manifold from the East India Company. With the vast resources of Bengal, the British spread their rule all over India. About 60% of British imports from all over Asia went through Bengal.

Who laid the foundation of Calcutta?

East India Company laid the foundation of Calcutta.

Who strongly opposed of British?

The Nawabs of Bengal strongly opposed the British Raj in Bengal as it caused huge losses to the provincial exchequer.

Where did the Battle of Plassey happen?

The Battle of Plassey was fought in the Plassey (or Palashi) region of West Bengal, east of the Bhagirathi River.

When did the Battle of Plassey happen?

In 1757.

Battle of Plassey took place between whom?

British Raj in Bengal
Robert Clive at the Battle of Plassey in 1757, which marked the defeat of the last independent Nawab of Bengal Siraj-ud-Daulah. Photo Credit Wikipedia

The Battle of Plassey was fought between the British Raj in Bengal and the Nawab of Bengal. In which the army of the British East India Company under the leadership of Robert Clive and Nawab Siraj-ud-Daulah was between.

Who became the Deputy Governor of Bihar?

Alwardi Khan was the Deputy Governor of Bihar who assumed the throne after assassinating Sarfaraz Khan, the incompetent son of Murshik Quli Khan, the Dewan of Bengal.

Who captured Fort William in 1756?

Siraj, the Nawab of Bengal marched on Calcutta and captured William.

What is the Black Hole of Calcutta?

After the victory of Fort William, on 20 June 175, Siraj imprisoned 146 British prisoners in a small dungeon in Calcutta, of whom 123 died of suffocation. It is known as the ‘Black Hole of Calcutta’.

Why did Robert Clive come?

After the crushing defeat of the British, Robert Clive arrived in Bengal to improve the morale and condition of the British army. A strong army was sent from Madras under the leadership of Robert Clive.

Who sided with the British?

Mir Jafar, a disgruntled follower of the Nawab, and other Bengali generals sided with the British.

Siraj promised Mir Jafar not to support the British.

Siraj had promised the throne to Mir Jafar in return for supporting the British.

Who supported the Nawab in the Battle of Plassey?

The Battle of Plassey met the Nawab with the French troops.

Battle of Plassey How many armies did Nawab and the British have?

The Nawab had an army of 50,000 soldiers and the British had 3,000.

Why did the Nawab lose the battle of Plassey?

The Nawab of Plassey was fought for many reasons, in which the Nawab met the British with the conspirators. The British had made a secret alliance with these people. This strengthened the hold of the British in the battle. Mir Jafar, along with about one-third of the Bengali army, did not join the battle. In the event of losing the battle, the Nawab tried to run away by showing his back but was killed by Mir Jafar’s son Miran.

What did the British get after the Battle of Plassey?

The Battle of Plassey was a turning point for the British. After winning the war, the political and military hold of the British increased in Bengal. After the Battle of Plassey, Clive declared Mir Jafar as the Nawab of Bengal and placed him on the throne of Murshidabad.

Mir Jafar gave the zamindari of 24 Parganas (group of villages) of Bengal to the East India Company. This did not satisfy the British and as a result, he was removed from the throne and his son-in-law Mir Qasim was placed on the throne as the new Nawab of Bengal.

When did the Battle of Buxar happen?

In 1763.

Between whom was the battle of Buxar fought?

The Battle of Buxar took place between the British Raj in Bengal and Mir Kasim, the Nawab of Bengal. In which Shuja-ud-Daula, the Nawab of Awadh; and the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II etc.

Whose successor was Mir Qasim?

Alwardi Khan.

Where did Mir Qasim shift his capital from Murshidabad?

in Munger, Bihar.

When did Mir Qasim make Munger his capital?

In 1762.

What was the problem of the British with Mir Kasim?

Mir Qasim considered himself an independent ruler which was a problem for the British as they wanted to make him a puppet in their hands.

Who won the battle of Buxar?

The forces of the Nawabs and the Mughal Emperor were decisively defeated by the British forces under Major Hector Munro at Buxar.

Where did Mir Qasim run away after the battle of Buxar?

Mir Kasim fled to Awadh after the battle of Buxar.

What did the British win in the Battle of Buxar?

The British won many cities like Katwa, Murshidabad, Giriya, Suti, and Munger. British authority over Bengal was confirmed and attempts to rule Bengal through puppet Nawabs came to an end. Unlike the Battle of Plassey, which was a British conspiracy, the Battle of Buxar was an all-out battle that established British prowess in warfare.

Between whom and why was the Treaty of Allahabad signed?

The Treaty of Allahabad took place between the Mughals and the British Raj in Bengal. After losing the Battle of Buxar, the Mughal Emperor was forced to cede the sovereignty of Bengal to the British in the Treaty of Allahabad in 1765. This victory made the British a great power in northern India and a claimant to supremacy over the whole country.

Where did the war against the British Raj in Bengal take place at that time?

The Karnataka Wars (1740–48, 1749–53, and 1758–63), the Battle of Plassey (1757), and the Battle of Buxar (1764) were fought against the British Raj in Bengal.

What did the British get after winning all these wars?

  • The Battle of Plassey laid the foundation of the British Empire in India.
  • The Battle of Buxar established the British as masters of Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa and made them great power in northern India and a claimant to the supremacy of the whole country.
  • The Karnataka Wars established British supremacy in trade in India.

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