fragmented Pakistan- After the creation of Pakistan on 14 August 1947, East Bengal was the largest and most populous region of Pakistan. Radcliffe gave the eastern part of Bengal to Pakistan. At the same time, India got West Bengal.
Look at the funny thing – because of the birth of Pakistan, the Muslim League was formed in Bengal. On 30 December 1906, when the agitation for the partition of Bengal was at its height, Nawab Salimullah Khan of Dacca founded the Muslim League. Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Agha Khan (III), Khwaja Salimullah and Hakeem Ajmal Khan joined.
Bengal’s ‘Direct action day’ played a major role in the process of creating Pakistan. The Muslim League government of Bengal declared a day of direct action on 16 August 1946, demanding the creation of a separate Pakistan. Shaheed Suhrawardy was the Chief Minister of the Muslim League of Bengal.
They killed 10,000 Hindus in Calcutta in one day and ran rivers of blood. Sure enough, this was the turning point and the Congress bowed down because of it. Congress was horrified by this ‘Direct Action Day’ carnage, which first spoke of an indivisible Bharat.
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Then on June 3, 1947, when Mountbatten proposed independence with partition, the Congress immediately convened its Executive Committee meeting in Delhi. This Congress Working Committee, held on 14 and 15 June 1947, accepted the proposal for the partition of India and paved the way for the creation of Pakistan. This means that Bengal’s contribution to the creation of Pakistan was huge.
But in the imagination of Rahmat Ali, who first imagined Pakistan, who first suggested the name ‘Pakistan’, Bengal was nowhere to be found in the creation of Pakistan.
That is, after the creation of Pakistan, there was no trace of its largest state, ‘East Bengal’ in Pakistan.
But Bengal’s role in the creation of Pakistan and the creation of a new Pakistan was huge. For the creation of Pakistan, the first meeting of the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan was held on 11 August 1947 under the chairmanship of Jogendra Nath Mandal. He is from Bengal. He was born and brought up in Barisal, a village on the banks of the Keerthankola River in East Bengal.
The first Cabinet of the Government of Pakistan was formed by the Prime Minister, Hamidul Haq Chaudhry. Also from East Pakistan, later became the Foreign Minister. Sir Khwaja Nazimuddin from Bengal was a minister in Pakistan’s first cabinet. And later became Pakistan’s second prime minister for a year and a half in 1951. Mohammad Ali Bogra, the third Prime Minister of Pakistan, was also from East Bengal.
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The fifth Prime Minister of Pakistan was Shaheed Suhrawardy from Bengal. Popular because of Direct Action Day. He was then the Chief Minister of undivided Bengal with fragmented Pakistan.
Nurul Amin was the last Prime Minister to represent Bengal in Pakistan. He was Prime Minister for 13 days.
He has the reputation of being the shortest-serving prime minister in the history of Pakistan. A guerrilla war against Pakistan was going on in East Bengal by ‘Mukti-Bahini’. War broke out between Pakistan and India.
But Nurul Amin was not in the Awami League which led the movement for Bangladesh. He was a member of the Pakistan Muslim League Party. Much to the annoyance of the Awami League movement and its leader Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, Amin Sahab became the prime minister. He had also failed in the Assembly elections a few years back.
That is, since the creation of Pakistan on 14 August 1947, Pakistan’s largest state, East Bengal, until about 1971 (i.e., when East Bengal evolved into ‘Bangla Desh’), Pakistan was represented in East Bengal. But since the capital of Pakistan was first Karachi and then Rawalpindi, control always remained in the hands of West Pakistan.
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Although the role of Bengal in the formation of Pakistan was enormous, there was a world of difference between the culture of Bengal and the Sindhi-Punjabi culture of West Pakistan. The language is different, the dress is different, the food habits are different. And the customs are also different. That’s why even after sharing the same religion, West Pakistanis never stuck with the Bengali community of East Pakistan.
After the creation of Pakistan, Quaide Azam Jinnah visited East Pakistan (i.e. East Bengal) in March 1948. He arrived in Dhaka on March 19 and addressed the students at Dhaka University’s Garjan Hall on March 24.
All students are Bengali-speaking. But Jeena does not know Bengali. He can’t even speak Urdu properly. So he gave a speech in English.
The gist of the speech was, ‘Only Urdu will go in Pakistan. Pakistan will unite through this one Urdu language..” Not only universities, Jinnah also said the same at a reception organized at the Race Course Ground (now – Suharavarti Udyan) in Dhaka on March 21. Words from his English speech.
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Let me make it very clear to you that the state language of Pakistan is going to be Urdu and no other language. Anyone, who tries to mislead you, is really the enemy of Pakistan. Without one state language, no nation can remain tied up solidly together and function. Look at the history of other countries. Therefore, so far as the state language is concerned, Pakistan’s shall be Urdu.’
(Let me clearly tell you that the state language of Pakistan will be Urdu and no other language. Those who try to misguide you are actually the enemies of Pakistan. Without only one state language, no nation can work together firmly. Look at the history of other countries. So, as far as state language is concerned, Pakistan’s Language will be Urdu.)
On his way back to Karachi, on 28 March, he reiterated the policy of ‘Urdu only’ on a Dhaka radio station.
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Author– Prashant, Malathi Arul (in Tamizh)
Courtesy: vsktamilnadu.org, This article was originally published on vsktamilnadu.org